We Need a New Paradigm

·         Einstein quote tells it all

·         Thinking “out of the box”

·         involves changing perceptions

·         Burden always falls onto youth – they are the people who have to change, not adults

·         Labels need to change, as Miller suggests

·         After all the talk of “reform” nothing much changes or the changes are cosmetic

·         Like the study in San Francisco says: “new services and programs were simply marginalized” – no system changes, but “adjuncts” of the existing system


Radical Non-Intervention

Schur’s general proposals


Assessing Schur’s ideas


Intervention Typologies

·         prevention programs fall into one of three broad categories:

o    early childhood and family interventions

o    school-based interventions

o    Community-based and/or multicomponent interventions.

·         Early childhood and family intervention category include:

o    preschool/Head Start programs

o    parent training/support programs.

·         School-based intervention category include:

o    Curricula

o    organization of school (teacher training, school team, and alternative schools)

o    special services (counseling and mentoring programs, health services, and volunteer work).

·         Community-based interventions include:

o    school–community collaboration programs

o    community education

o    multicomponent comprehensive programs.

Components of Successful Programs

·         avoid denial of a problem

·         programs should target medium‑ to high‑risk youths



A Blueprint for Juvenile Justice Reform

·         Youth Transition Funders Group - nine tenets for improved outcomes

o   Reduce Institutionalization

o   Reduce Racial Disparity


Missouri’s Model

·         Regionally based smaller, facilities

·         Youths are confined in small (about 32 residential with no more than 50 beds in each) facilities near their homes and families.

·         Use case-management approach

·         Rooms carpeted; no concrete cells, no wire fences

·         Non-punitive, educational (6 hours per day)

·         Philosophy: No matter how serious their past crimes, and no matter how destructive their current attitudes and behaviors, DYS considers every young person a work in progress. Each is redeemable and deserves help

Detention Diversion Advocacy Project (DDAP)


The DDAP program involves two primary components

·         Detention Advocacy

o    identifying youth likely to be detained pending their adjudication and once a potential client is identified, DDAP case managers present a release plan to the judge.

·         Case Management

o    link youths to community-based services and closely monitor their progress. 

o    services are “field-oriented,” requiring the case manager to have daily contact with the youth, his or her family, and significant others.



The “Deep End”




Why is DDAP Successful?


Models for Change

·         John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation are sponsors

·         Aims at a more effective, fair, and developmentally sound system that holds young people accountable for their actions, provides for their rehabilitation, protects them from harm, increases their life chances, and manages the risk they pose to themselves and to the public

·         Programs in Illinois (“Redeploy Illinois”, Pennsylvania (Pennsylvania Academic and Career/Technical Training), Louisiana (Jefferson Parish), and Washington (United for Youth)

Other Model Programs

·         Youth Courts

·         Drug Courts

·         Model Community Mental Health Programming


Another New Paradigm: Restorative justice

·         Emphasizes the needs of the victims, the offender, and the community

·         Goal is to end the pain and suffering of the victims of crime – all crime plus human rights abuses

·         Also, to cease further objectification of those who have been involved in the violent act—the victim, the offender, the families connected to these two individuals, and the community at large.

·         Principle of non-violence as taught by Gandhi and Martin Luther King

·         Many examples, such as:

o    Mural Arts Program in Philadelphia

o    Peacemaking Circles in Peoria, Illinois


Broad-based National Strategies (Currie)


·         Early educational interventions

·         Expanded health and mental health services

·         Family support programs

·         Reentry programs

·         Drug and alcohol abuse treatment programs

Improving Social Capital (Colvin)

·         social reproduction—the process through which institutions (primarily families and schools) prepare children for productive roles in society

Positive youth development (PYD)

·         strength-based, resilience-oriented perspective on adolescence

Addressing the Problem of Social Inequality 

·         Need another “New Deal” like the one developed in the 1930s

·         Break the “school-to-prison-pipeline”

Programs for Girls

·         Children of the Night

·         National and Local Programs of Girls, Incorporated

·         OJJDP Model Programs for girls

Heading Upstream to Find the Causes